This newly revised edition of Global Environment
discusses the major elements of the geochemical cycles and global fluxes found in the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, as well as the human effects on these fluxes. Retaining the strengths of the original edition while incorporating the latest discoveries, this textbook takes an integrated, multidisciplinary, and global approach to geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces fundamental concepts of meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography. New concepts and information in this updated edition include changes of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time, major advances in the study of chemical weathering of rocks, ocean acidification, and important environmental problems, such as the amelioration of the acid rain problem due to reduction in sulfur deposition, problems with nitrification of soils and lakes, and eutrophication of rivers and estuaries. An expanded chapter explores atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, with the most up-to-date statistics on CO2, the carbon cycle, other greenhouse gases, and the ozone hole.
Only requiring a fundamental understanding in elementary chemistry, yet taking into account extensive and current data, this text is ideal for students in environmental geochemistry, environmental geology, global change, biogeochemistry, water pollution, geochemical cycles, chemical oceanography, and geohydrology, and serves as a valuable reference for researchers working on global geochemical and environmental issues. * Revised edition takes a close look at global fluxes involving the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, and the human effects on these fluxes * Detailed discussion of basic concepts including meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography * An expanded up-to-date chapter on atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, including CO2, other greenhouse gases, and ozone * Presentation of major advances in the study of chemical weathering * Discussion of current environmental topics * Global coverage of environmental problems involving water "This second edition of a useful book by distinguished authors Elizabeth Berner and Robert Berner surveys the status of the terrestrial environment from the standpoint of cycles of material and energy... Global Environment
can also serve as a reliable, detailed introduction to environmental science for
Preface to the Second Edition xiii Chapter 1. Introduction to the Global Environment: The Water and Energy Cycles and Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation 1 Introduction 1 The Global Water Cycle 2 Major Water Masses 2 Fluxes between Reservoirs 2 Geographic Variations in Precipitation and Evaporation 4 The Energy Cycle 7 Introduction 7 Radiation and Energy Balance 7 Variations in Solar Radiation: The Atmospheric and Oceanic Heat Engine 11 Circulation of the Atmosphere 14 Oceanic Circulation 16 Introduction 16 Wind-Driven (Shallow) Circulation 17 Coastal Upwelling 19 Thermohaline (Deep) Circulation 19 Chapter 2. Air Chemistry: The Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Hole 24 Atmospheric Gases 24 Carbon Dioxide 26 Present and Future CO2 and the Surficial Carbon Cycle 26 Past CO2 Levels 36 Other Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrous Oxide 39 Other Greenhouse Gases: Halogens and Tropospheric Ozone 46 Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Factors 47 Climatic Effects of Radiative Forcing: Climate Sensitivity, Global Warming, and Hydrologic Changes 48 Observed Changes in Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation 50 Observed Changes in the Water Cycle: Water Vapor, Precipitation, Streamflow, and Storms 52 Observed Changes in Ice, Sea Level and the Oceans 54 Predictions for Future Climate Change 57 Aerosols 59 Aerosol Cloud Effects 60 Types of Aerosols 61 Gaseous Emissions 62 Sulfate Aerosols 62 Black Carbon Aerosols 63 Organic Carbon Aerosols 65 Biomass Burning Aerosols 65 Nitrate Aerosols 65 Mineral Dust Aerosols 66 Sea-Salt Aerosols 67 Surface Dimming by Aerosols 68 Aerosols and the Hydrologic Cycle 68 Black Carbon Aerosols and Snow Cover 69 Ozone and the Ozone Hole 69 Stratospheric Ozone: The Ozone Hole 70 Tropospheric Ozone: Air Pollution 76 Chapter 3. Air Chemistry: Rainwater, Acid Rain, and the Atmospheric Cycles of Sulfur and Nitrogen 79 Introduction 79 Formation of Rain (and Snow) 80 Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 80 Condensation 83 Sublimation 84 Rain (and Snow) Formation 84 Air Motion in Cloud Formation 85 Chemical Composition of Rainwater: General Characteristics 85 Cl-, Na+, Mg++, Ca++ and K+ in Rain 92 Gases and Rain 102 Sulfate in Rain: The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle 102 Sea-Salt Sulfate 103 U.S. Sulfur Emissions 104 Conversion of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Rain 107 Biogenic Reduced Sulfur 108 Other Sulfur Sources: Biomass Burning, Volcanism, and Soil Dust 109 Sulfur Deposition on Land 110 Anthropogenic Sulfur Deposition in the United States 111 Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle: Human Perturbation 113 Radiative Forcing from S