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Hydrogen Generation, Storage and Utilization

Hydrogen Generation, Storage and Utilization

Authors
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Year 01/04/2014
Edition First
Pages 208
Version hardback
Readership level Professional and scholarly
Language English
ISBN 9781118140635
Categories Chemical engineering
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490.43 PLN / €109.86 / £99.23
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Book description

The potential use of hydrogen as a clean and renewable fuel resource has generated significant attention in recent years, especially given the rapidly increasing demand for energy sources and the dwindling availability of fossil fuels. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel in several ways. Its only byproduct of consumption is water; it is the most abundant element in the universe; and it is available at low cost. Hydrogen generation is possible via a number of possible chemical processes, to separate the hydrogen from its bond with atoms such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. In this book, the authors provide the scientific foundations for established and innovative methods of hydrogen extraction; outline solutions for its storage; and illustrate its applications in the fields of petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, and manufacturing. * Addresses the three fundamental aspects of hydrogen as a fuel resource: generation, storage, and utilization * Provides theoretical basis for the chemical processes required for hydrogen generation, including solar, photoelectrochemical, thermochemical, and fermentation methods * Discusses storage of hydrogen based on metal hydrides, hydrocarbons, high pressure compression, and cryogenics * Examines the applications of hydrogen utilization in the fields of petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, and manufacturing * Contains over 90 figures, including 27 color figures

Hydrogen Generation, Storage and Utilization

Table of contents

Preface ix Acknowledgments xiii 1 Introduction to Basic Properties of Hydrogen 1 1.1 Basics about the Hydrogen Element 1 1.2 Basics about the Hydrogen Molecule 3 1.3 Other Fundamental Aspects of Hydrogen 4 1.4 Safety and Precautions about Hydrogen 5 References 5 2 Hydrocarbons for Hydrogen Generation 7 2.1 Basics about Hydrocarbons 7 2.2 Steam Methane Reforming 8 2.3 Partial Oxidation 10 2.4 Methanol and Ethanol Steam Reforming 12 2.5 Glycerol Reforming 15 2.5.1 Glycerol Reforming Processes 15 2.5.2 Mechanistic Aspects of Glycerol Reforming Reactions 17 2.5.3 Catalytic Reforming of Glycerol 17 2.6 Cracking of Ammonia and Methane 18 2.6.1 Ammonia Cracking 18 2.6.2 Methane Cracking 22 2.6.3 Other Decomposition Methods 23 2.7 Summary 24 References 25 3 Solar Hydrogen Generation: Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Methods 27 3.1 Basics about Solar Water Splitting 27 3.2 Photocatalyic Methods 28 3.2.1 Background 28 3.2.2 Metal Oxides 29 3.2.3 Metal Oxynitrides/Metal Nitrides/Metal Phosphides 31 3.2.4 Metal Chalcogenides 32 3.2.5 Conclusion 35 3.3 Photoelectrochemical Methods 36 3.3.1 Background 36 3.3.2 Photocathode for Water Reduction 36 3.3.3 Photoanode for Water Oxidation 40 3.3.4 Conclusion 45 3.4 Summary 45 References 46 4 Biohydrogen Generation and Other Methods 51 4.1 Basics about Biohydrogen 51 4.2 Pathways of Biohydrogen Production from Biomass 52 4.3 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen 55 4.3.1 Hydrogen from Biomass via Pyrolysis 55 4.3.2 Hydrogen from Biomass via Gasifi cation 58 4.3.3 Hydrogen from Biomass via Supercritical Water (Fluid Gas) Extraction 60 4.3.4 Comparison of Thermochemical Processes 61 4.4 Biological Process for Hydrogen Production 62 4.4.1 Biophotolysis of Water Using Microalgae 64 4.4.2 Photofermentation 66 4.4.3 Dark Fermentation 66 4.4.4 Two-Stage Process: Integration of Dark and Photofermentation 67 4.5 Summary 69 References 69 5 Established Methods Based on Compression and Cryogenics 75 5.1 Basic Issues about Hydrogen Storage 75 5.2 High Pressure Compression 78 5.3 Liquid Hydrogen 84 5.4 Summary 89 References 90 6 Chemical Storage Based on Metal Hydrides and Hydrocarbons 91 6.1 Basics on Hydrogen Storage of Metal Hydrides 91 6.2 Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Metal Hydrides 92 6.2.1 Storage Capacities 93 6.2.2 The

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