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Practical Field Ecology

Practical Field Ecology

Authors
Publisher Blackwell Science
Year 01/07/2020
Edition First
Pages 464
Version paperback
Readership level Professional and scholarly
Language English
ISBN 9781119413226
Categories The environment
Delivery to United States

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Book description

Offers a comprehensive, accessible introduction to experimental design, field monitoring skills for plants and animals, data analysis, interpretation and reporting This user-friendly book presents field monitoring skills for both plants and animals, within the context of a research project. This text provides a single resource to take the reader all the way through from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling, organism identification, computer-based data analysis and interpretation, and finally how to present the results to maximise the impact of the work. Logically structured throughout, and revised extensively in the second edition, the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field-based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. It evaluates appropriate sampling and analytical methods, identifying potential problems associated with various techniques and how to mitigate these. The second edition of this popular text has updated reference material and weblinks, increased the number of case studies by 50% to illustrate the use of specific techniques in the field, added over 20% more figures (including 8 colour plates), and made more extensive use of footnotes to provide extra details. Extensions to topics covered in the first edition include additional discussion of: ethical issues; statistical methods (sample size estimation, use of the statistical package R, mixed models); bioindicators, especially for freshwater pollution; seeds, fecundity and population dynamics including static and dynamic life tables; forestry techniques including tree coring and tree mortality calculations; the use of data repositories; writing for a journal and producing poster and oral presentations. In addition, the use of new and emerging technologies has been a particular focus, including mobile apps for environmental monitoring and identification; land cover and GIS; the use of drones including legal frameworks and codes of practice; molecular field techniques including DNA analysis in the field (including eDNA); photo-matching for identifying individuals; camera trapping; modern techniques for detecting and analysing bat echolocation calls; and data storage using the cloud. Divided into six distinct chapters, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition begins at project inception with a chapter on planning--covering health and safety, along with guidance on how to ensure that the sampling and experimental design is suitable for subsequent statistical analysis. Fol

Practical Field Ecology

Table of contents

List of Tables xiii


List of Figures xv


List of Boxes xxi


List of Case Studies xxiii


List of Plates xxv


Preface to the Second Edition xxvii


Preface to the First Edition xxix


Acknowledgements xxxi


About the Companion Website xxxv


1 Preparation 1


Choosing a topic for study 2


Ecological research questions 4


Monitoring individual species and groups of species 4


Monitoring species richness 5


Monitoring population sizes and density 5


Monitoring community structure 6


Monitoring behaviour 6


A note of caution 6


Creating aims, objectives, and hypotheses 9


Reviewing the literature 9


Primary literature 10


Secondary literature 10


Other sources of information 11


Search terms 11


Reading papers 12


Practical considerations 12


Legal aspects 13


Ethical issues 13


Health and safety issues 14


Implementation 16


Equipment and technical support 19


Field/laboratory notebook 19


Pilot studies 21


Time management 22


Statistical considerations in project design 24


Designing and setting up experiments and surveys 26


Choosing sampling methods 26


Types of data 27


Sampling designs 29


Planning statistical analysis 35


Describing data 35


Asking questions about data 36


Predictive analysis 37


Multivariate analysis 38


Examining patterns and structure in communities 39


Summary 39


2 Monitoring Site Characteristics 43


Site selection 43


Site characterisation 44


Habitat mapping 44


Examination of landscape scale 54


Measuring microclimatic variables 55


Monitoring substrates 60


Monitoring water 64


Other physical attributes 67


Measuring biological attributes 70


Identification 76


3 Sampling Plants and Other Static Organisms 85


Sampling for static organisms 88


Seeds, fecundity, and population dynamics 91


Quadrat sampling 92


Density estimation using quadrats 95


Frequency estimation using quadrats 95


Cover estimation using quadrats 96


Biomass estimation within quadrats 97


Quadrat size 99


Nested quadrats 100


Placement of quadrats 101


Quadrat shape 102


Pin-frames 103


Transects 104


Plotless sampling 106


Distribution of static organisms 109


Forestry techniques 110


Tree diameter 110


Tree basal area 113


Height of trees 113


Timber volume 114


Growth 114


Canopy cover 115


Age and mortality 115


4 Sampling Mobile Organisms 119


General issues 120


Distribution of mobile organisms 123


Direct observation 124


Behaviour 124


Indirect methods 130


Capture techniques 130


Marking individuals 133


Radio-Tracking 136

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