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Practical Field Ecology

Practical Field Ecology

Publisher Blackwell Science
Year 01/07/2020
Edition First
Pages 464
Version paperback
Readership level Professional and scholarly
Language English
ISBN 9781119413226
Categories The environment
$62.80 (with VAT)
232.00 PLN / €51.39 / £44.30
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Book description

Offers a comprehensive, accessible introduction to experimental design, field monitoring skills for plants and animals, data analysis, interpretation and reporting This user-friendly book presents field monitoring skills for both plants and animals, within the context of a research project. This text provides a single resource to take the reader all the way through from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling, organism identification, computer-based data analysis and interpretation, and finally how to present the results to maximise the impact of the work. Logically structured throughout, and revised extensively in the second edition, the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field-based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. It evaluates appropriate sampling and analytical methods, identifying potential problems associated with various techniques and how to mitigate these. The second edition of this popular text has updated reference material and weblinks, increased the number of case studies by 50% to illustrate the use of specific techniques in the field, added over 20% more figures (including 8 colour plates), and made more extensive use of footnotes to provide extra details. Extensions to topics covered in the first edition include additional discussion of: ethical issues; statistical methods (sample size estimation, use of the statistical package R, mixed models); bioindicators, especially for freshwater pollution; seeds, fecundity and population dynamics including static and dynamic life tables; forestry techniques including tree coring and tree mortality calculations; the use of data repositories; writing for a journal and producing poster and oral presentations. In addition, the use of new and emerging technologies has been a particular focus, including mobile apps for environmental monitoring and identification; land cover and GIS; the use of drones including legal frameworks and codes of practice; molecular field techniques including DNA analysis in the field (including eDNA); photo-matching for identifying individuals; camera trapping; modern techniques for detecting and analysing bat echolocation calls; and data storage using the cloud. Divided into six distinct chapters, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition begins at project inception with a chapter on planning--covering health and safety, along with guidance on how to ensure that the sampling and experimental design is suitable for subsequent statistical analysis. Fol

Practical Field Ecology

Table of contents

List of Tables xiii

List of Figures xv

List of Boxes xxi

List of Case Studies xxiii

List of Plates xxv

Preface to the Second Edition xxvii

Preface to the First Edition xxix

Acknowledgements xxxi

About the Companion Website xxxv

1 Preparation 1

Choosing a topic for study 2

Ecological research questions 4

Monitoring individual species and groups of species 4

Monitoring species richness 5

Monitoring population sizes and density 5

Monitoring community structure 6

Monitoring behaviour 6

A note of caution 6

Creating aims, objectives, and hypotheses 9

Reviewing the literature 9

Primary literature 10

Secondary literature 10

Other sources of information 11

Search terms 11

Reading papers 12

Practical considerations 12

Legal aspects 13

Ethical issues 13

Health and safety issues 14

Implementation 16

Equipment and technical support 19

Field/laboratory notebook 19

Pilot studies 21

Time management 22

Statistical considerations in project design 24

Designing and setting up experiments and surveys 26

Choosing sampling methods 26

Types of data 27

Sampling designs 29

Planning statistical analysis 35

Describing data 35

Asking questions about data 36

Predictive analysis 37

Multivariate analysis 38

Examining patterns and structure in communities 39

Summary 39

2 Monitoring Site Characteristics 43

Site selection 43

Site characterisation 44

Habitat mapping 44

Examination of landscape scale 54

Measuring microclimatic variables 55

Monitoring substrates 60

Monitoring water 64

Other physical attributes 67

Measuring biological attributes 70

Identification 76

3 Sampling Plants and Other Static Organisms 85

Sampling for static organisms 88

Seeds, fecundity, and population dynamics 91

Quadrat sampling 92

Density estimation using quadrats 95

Frequency estimation using quadrats 95

Cover estimation using quadrats 96

Biomass estimation within quadrats 97

Quadrat size 99

Nested quadrats 100

Placement of quadrats 101

Quadrat shape 102

Pin-frames 103

Transects 104

Plotless sampling 106

Distribution of static organisms 109

Forestry techniques 110

Tree diameter 110

Tree basal area 113

Height of trees 113

Timber volume 114

Growth 114

Canopy cover 115

Age and mortality 115

4 Sampling Mobile Organisms 119

General issues 120

Distribution of mobile organisms 123

Direct observation 124

Behaviour 124

Indirect methods 130

Capture techniques 130

Marking individuals 133

Radio-Tracking 136

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