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History of Nanotechnology

History of Nanotechnology

Authors
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Year 01/03/2019
Edition First
Pages 290
Version hardback
Readership level Professional and scholarly
Language English
ISBN 9781119460084
Categories Materials science
$171.83 (with VAT)
718.28 PLN / €158.34 / £139.65
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Book description

The scientific knowledge of nanoscience and nanotechnology is regarded to be a modern sciencethat evolved after Feynman's concept was formulated in the 1950s. However, Faraday and other scientists in the 19th century showed the science behind the small and its relation to optical properties. And it is now accepted that knowledge of using nanoparticles prevailed during the medieval period as well. This book takes the readers on a fascinating journey writing the history of nanotechnology based on the evidence of existence from the prehistoric period right up to the contemporary times. Nature utilized nanotechnology during the origin and expansion of the universe and especially in the evolution of living beings on our planet. Early civilizations in different parts of globe fabricated and used materials without having perception of their actual size. This unique historical view systematically evaluates the development of various applications of nanotechnology through the ages and the science behind it. Some of the issues covered include: - How old is nanotechnology? - Pre-historic evidence of knowledge of nanotechnology - Nanotechnology in ancient India - Ayurvedic Bhasma as nanomedicine - Mayan's knowledge of nanotechnology - Nanotechnology during the Roman empire and medieval period - European knowledge in the 19th century - Modern and contemporary history of nanotechnology This book is compilation of existence of scientific knowledge even of the people who existed before there were schools, universities and organized teaching. The author has scoured literature dating back to Mayan ... as well as historical observations A systematic evaluation of development of various applications of nanotechnology and the science behind it is presented in this book under following headings -How old is Nanotechnology -Pre-historic Evidence of Knowledge of Nanotechnology -Nanotechnology in Ancient India -Ayurvedic Bhasma as Nanomedicine, its use prevails even today -Mayan's Knowledge of Nanotechnology -Nanotechnologists Flourished During Roman Empire and medieval period -European Nano knowledge That Led to Faraday Understands of Gold Nanoparticles -Contemporary History of Nanotechnology

History of Nanotechnology

Table of contents

Preface xi


Foreword xiii


1 How Old is Nanotechnology? 1
Mrinal Chakre and Madhuri Sharon


Preamble 1


1.1 Introduction 3


1.2 Nano-Geosystem for Abiotic Nanoparticles Formation 5


1.2.1 Nanoparticles Occuring in Mineral Composites 7


1.2.1.1 Allophane and Smectites 7


1.2.1.2 Opal 8


1.2.2 Nanoparticles From Volcanic Activities 9


1.2.3 Nanoparticles From Dust of Cosmic Sources 9


1.2.4 Nanoparticles From Desert Surfaces 10


1.3 Nano-Biosystem Consisting of Biotic Nanoparticles 11


1.3.1 Nanobe 12


1.3.2 Virus 13


1.3.3 Bacteria 14


1.4 Concluding Remarks 16


References 17


2 Prehistoric Evidence of Nanotechnology 21
Aparna A Bhairappa and Madhuri Sharon


2.1 Introduction 21


2.2 Evolutionary Study and Theories 22


2.2.1 Aristotelian Theory 25


2.2.2 Einstein's General Theory of Relativity 25


2.2.3 Hubble's Hypothesis 26


2.3 Prehistoric Era 28


2.4 What Is Nanotechnology? 29


2.5 Was Nature the First to Fabricate Nanomaterials? 30


2.6 Concluding Remarks 34


References 35


3 Nanotechnology in Ancient India 37
Vaishali A Gargade


3.1 Introduction 37


3.2 Glimpses of Remnants of Nanotechnology-Based Materials Made in Ancient India 39


3.3 Advancement of Nanoscale Metallurgy in Ancient India 40


3.3.1 Damascus Sword 41


3.3.2 Iron Pillars 43


3.4 Applications of Nanometals in Ancient India 45


3.4.1 Ornaments 45


3.4.2 Paints and Coatings 46


3.5 Nanomedicine Evolved in Ancient India that Still Prevails Today 47


3.6 Carbon Nanoforms Used in Cosmetics in Ancient India that still Prevail Today 51


3.6.1 Herbal Kajal 51


3.7 Concluding Remarks 52


References 53


4 Are Bhasma Nanomedicine of Ancient Times 57
Archana S Injal


4.1 Introduction 57


4.1.1 Ayurveda: An Age-Old Science That Originated in India with Dhanvantari 58


4.1.2 History of Ayurveda 60


4.2 Bhasma: An Ancient Indian Medicine Concept Also Followed by the Chinese and Egyptians 62


4.2.1 Types of Nano-Size Bhasma 63


4.2.1.1 Metal Bhasma: Element Form (Toxic), Compound Form (Safe) 63


4.2.1.2 Metal Mixture/Alloy Bhasma 64


4.2.1.3 Herbo-Mineral Bhasma 72


4.2.1.4 Other Bhasma 74


4.2.2 Properties of Bhasma 75


4.2.2.1 Physical Properties 75


4.2.2.2 Chemical Properties 77


4.3 The Similarity of Bhasma Preparation to Contemporary Nanoparticle Synthesis Method 78


4.4 Various Medicinal Uses of Bhasma 81


4.5 Concluding Remarks 81


References 84


5 The Maya's Knowledge of Nanotechnology 91
Vinod P Sinoorkar


5.1 Introduction 91


5.2 The Maya 92


5.2.1 Yucatec Maya 92


5.2.2 Chiapas 92


5.2.

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