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Environmental Nanotechnology for Water Purification

Environmental Nanotechnology for Water Purification

Authors
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Year 01/06/2020
Edition First
Pages 336
Version hardback
Readership level Professional and scholarly
Language English
ISBN 9781119640455
Categories The environment, Management of land & natural resources, Water purification & desalinization
$234.61 (with VAT)
880.00 PLN / €193.86 / £167.78
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Book description

Dyes, pigments and metals are extensively used in food, paper, carpet, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, and textile industries, in order to color and finish products. As a result, they generate a considerable amount of coloured wastewater rich in organic, inorganic, and mineral substances which are continuously polluting the water bodies and affecting human and aquatic life. Besides these industries, urban and agricultural activities also generate effluents high in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In recent years, considerable research work has been done in this area and is underway to eliminate heavy metals particularly mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium and cadmium (Cd) and synthetic dyes from polluted waters which have high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Currently a number of methods are in operation to decontaminate the polluted waters. Among several purification technologies, use of nanoparticles/composites have gained much attention as efficient purification technology due to its many advantages such as simple synthesis, special chemical and physical properties, unique photocatalytic activity and beneficial antimicrobial properties and high efficiency. The book Environmental Nanotechnology for Water Purification comprehensively covers and provides new insights on all nanoparticles, composites and advanced methods employed in water purification.

Environmental Nanotechnology for Water Purification

Table of contents

Preface xiii


1 Environmental Toxicity of Nanoparticles 1
Mohammad Shahadat, Momina, Yasmin, Suzylawati Ismail, S. Wazed Ali and Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad


1.1 Introduction 2


1.1.1 Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Wastewater Bodies 3


1.1.2 The Effect of Nanoparticles Toxicity on Human Health 4


1.1.2.1 Entry of Nanoparticles into Environment 11


1.1.2.2 Exposure of Nanomaterials 13


1.1.2.3 Consumption of Nanoparticles Through Inhalation and Injection 14


1.1.2.4 Penetration of NPs Through Skin 16


1.1.3 In Vitro Toxicity of Nanoparticles 17


1.1.4 Methods for Assessment of Nanoparticles Toxicity 21


1.1.4.1 Proliferation Assays 21


1.1.4.2 Necrosis Assay 22


1.1.4.3 Apoptosis Assay 22


1.1.4.4 Oxidative Stress Assay 23


1.2 A Critical Evaluation of Challenges and Conclusions 23


Acknowledgement 24


References 24


2 Conventional and Advanced Technologies for Wastewater Treatment 33
S. Bairagi and S. Wazed Ali


2.1 Introduction 34


2.2 Water Filtration by Various Technologies 35


2.3 Conventional Technologies 36


2.3.1 Sedimentation 36


2.3.2 Flocculation 37


2.3.3 Adsorption 38


2.3.4 Filtration 39


2.3.5 Coagulation 40


2.4 Advanced Technologies 41


2.4.1 Water Filtration Using Nanofibrous Membrane 41


2.4.1.1 Removal of Heavy Metal from the Wastewater 42


2.4.1.2 Removal of Microorganisms from Water 45


2.4.1.3 Removal of Dye from Water 49


2.5 Conclusion 53


References 54


3 Nanocarbons-Mediated Water Purification: An Application Towards Wastewater Treatment 57
Vinchurkar, Prasen and Shah, Sejal


3.1 Introduction 58


3.2 Importance of Various Nanocarbons in Water Purification 60


3.3 Various Methods of Nanocarbon-Mediated Purifications of Water 62


3.3.1 Nanocarbon Adsorption (Carbon-Based Nanoadsorbents) 62


3.3.2 Graphene Sieves and CNTs' Membranes Membrane Process 71


3.3.2.1 CNT's Membranes and Membrane Process 75


3.3.3 Carbon Nanofiber Membranes 77


3.3.4 Nanocarbon Composite Membranes 82


3.3.5 Antimicrobial Actions of Various Nanocarbons 83


3.4 Regeneration or Recycling of Nanocarbons 83


3.5 Safety, Toxicity, and Environmental Impact of Broad Spectrum of Nanocarbons 84


3.6 Limitations and Research Needs 87


3.6.1 Limitations 87


3.6.2 Research Needs 87


3.7 Conclusion 87


References 88


4 Graphene-Based Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation Applications 101
Khursheed Ahmad and Waseem Raza


4.1 Introduction 102


4.2 Graphene-Based Composites as Photocatalysts 104


4.2.1 Graphene/ZnO as Photocatalyst 104


4.2.2 Graphene/TiO2 as Photocatalys

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