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Filling a need, this ready reference brings together the hard-to-get and recently acquired knowledge usually only found scattered in the original literature. Following an introduction to plastics as a class of engineering materials and an overview of their properties, the book comprehensively covers the characterization and quality control of manufactured plastic components, including an exhaustive treatment of the possible flaws of plastics inadvertently introduced during manufacturing along with viable solutions to prevent these faults. The second part is concerned with the testing of the resulting end products by various physical and chemical methods on the nano-, meso- and macroscale. An appendix with thermoanalytic data and international standards for the most commonly used polymers in plastics engineering rounds off the text. Written by experienced academics and industrial researchers and developers who intimately know the problems faced by plastics engineers in their daily work - as well as the solutions - this book provides first-hand practical knowledge and in-depth discussions for industrial chemists and materials scientists alike.
Practical Testing and Evaluation of Plastics
INTRODUCTION TO PLASTICS Plastics Structure and Behavior of Plastics: Influence of Molecular Weight on Material Properties, Homo- and Co-Polymers, Polymer Blends Melting Polymers Mechanical Behavior of Polymers: Creep, Glass Transition Temperature, Melt, Solidification, Time Dependent Deformation, Time Dependence and Thermal Activation Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behavior Molding Compounds Material Selection Processing of Polymers: Preconditioning, Production Processes, Effects on Quality MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MANUFACTURED PLASTIC COMPONENTS Introduction Materials Characterization Typical Flaws: Filamentation, Cold Slogs, Jetting, Inclusions, Diesel Effect, Incomplete Fill, Shrink Marks, Flash, Contraction Cavities, Bubbles, Weld Lines, Flow Figures, Dark Spots, Record Effect, Exfoliation, Fouling, Demolding Errors, Warpage, Shrinkage, Whitening, Cracking Problems and Possible Solutions: Material Qualification, Component Qualification, Material Identification, Fillers, Recyclate Processing, Material Degradation, Environmental Compatibility, Swelling, Inconsistent Workability, Pre-Drying, Thermal History, Effects of Color and Color Changes, Effects of Impact Toughness Modifiers, Orientation, Internal Stresses, Warpage, Quality Control, Failure Analysis, Internal Flaws, Tribological Properties, Tool Construction and Design, Manufacturing Process MATERIALS TESTING Purpose of Material Testing Test Planning Sample Preparation and Test Execution: Sampling, Types of Samples, Test Execution Presentation of Results / Report Testing Macromolecular Properties: Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Solution Viscometry Evaluating Melt Properties: Rheometry, Viscometry Evaluating the Geometry of Molded Parts: Dimensions, Shrinkage, Warpage Evaluating the Structure of Molded Parts: Orientation, Morphology, Atomic Force Microscopy, Ultrasound, X-Ray Mechanical Testing: Quasi-Static Stress, Impact Testing, Long-Term Static Load, Long-Term Dynamic Loading, Temperature Effects Optical Evaluation: Visual Inspection, Microscopic Inspection, Color Measurement Thermal Analysis: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA) - Dilatometry, Hot Stage Microscopy, Determining Operating Temperatures Chemical Testing: Chemical Resistance, Stress Cracking Physical Properties: Density, Mass, Moisture and Water Absorption, Determining Ash Content, Weathering Tribological Tests Flammability Tests: Flammability, UL Flammability, Evaluating Burn Behavior by Oxygen Index Method Electrical Testing APPENDIX Thermoanalytic Data for Polymers Standards References Index