Księgarnia naukowa
English Polski
Dostęp on-line

Książki

0.00 PLN
Schowek (0) 
Schowek jest pusty
Wydawcy udostępniają darmowe zasoby na czas epidemii


Practical Field Ecology: A Project Guide

Practical Field Ecology: A Project Guide

Autorzy
Wydawnictwo John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Data wydania 30/07/2020
Liczba stron 464
Forma publikacji książka w miękkiej oprawie
Poziom zaawansowania Dla profesjonalistów, specjalistów i badaczy naukowych
ISBN 9781119413226
Kategorie Środowisko
237.54 PLN (z VAT)
$63.15 / €53.16 / £47.25 /
Produkt na zamówienie
Dostawa 3-4 tygodnie
Ilość
Do schowka

Opis książki

Offers a comprehensive, accessible introduction to experimental design, field monitoring skills for plants and animals, data analysis, interpretation and reporting This user-friendly book presents field monitoring skills for both plants and animals, within the context of a research project. This text provides a single resource to take the reader all the way through from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling, organism identification, computer-based data analysis and interpretation, and finally how to present the results to maximise the impact of the work. Logically structured throughout, and revised extensively in the second edition, the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field-based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. It evaluates appropriate sampling and analytical methods, identifying potential problems associated with various techniques and how to mitigate these. The second edition of this popular text has updated reference material and weblinks, increased the number of case studies by 50% to illustrate the use of specific techniques in the field, added over 20% more figures (including 8 colour plates), and made more extensive use of footnotes to provide extra details. Extensions to topics covered in the first edition include additional discussion of: ethical issues; statistical methods (sample size estimation, use of the statistical package R, mixed models); bioindicators, especially for freshwater pollution; seeds, fecundity and population dynamics including static and dynamic life tables; forestry techniques including tree coring and tree mortality calculations; the use of data repositories; writing for a journal and producing poster and oral presentations. In addition, the use of new and emerging technologies has been a particular focus, including mobile apps for environmental monitoring and identification; land cover and GIS; the use of drones including legal frameworks and codes of practice; molecular field techniques including DNA analysis in the field (including eDNA); photo-matching for identifying individuals; camera trapping; modern techniques for detecting and analysing bat echolocation calls; and data storage using the cloud. Divided into six distinct chapters, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition begins at project inception with a chapter on planning--covering health and safety, along with guidance on how to ensure that the sampling and experimental design is suitable for subsequent statistical analysis. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapters cover analysing, interpreting and presenting data, and writing up the research. Offers a readable and approachable integrated guide devoted to field-based research projects Takes students from the planning stage, into the field, and clearly guides them through organism identification in the laboratory and computer-based data analysis, interpretation and data presentation Includes a chapter on how to write project reports and present findings in a variety of formats to differing audiences Aimed at undergraduates taking courses in Ecology, Biology, Geography, and Environmental Science, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition will also benefit postgraduates seeking to support their projects.

Practical Field Ecology: A Project Guide

Spis treści

List of Tables xiii


List of Figures xv


List of Boxes xxi


List of Case Studies xxiii


List of Plates xxv


Preface to the Second Edition xxvii


Preface to the First Edition xxix


Acknowledgements xxxi


About the Companion Website xxxv


1 Preparation 1


Choosing a topic for study 2


Ecological research questions 4


Monitoring individual species and groups of species 4


Monitoring species richness 5


Monitoring population sizes and density 5


Monitoring community structure 6


Monitoring behaviour 6


A note of caution 6


Creating aims, objectives, and hypotheses 9


Reviewing the literature 9


Primary literature 10


Secondary literature 10


Other sources of information 11


Search terms 11


Reading papers 12


Practical considerations 12


Legal aspects 13


Ethical issues 13


Health and safety issues 14


Implementation 16


Equipment and technical support 19


Field/laboratory notebook 19


Pilot studies 21


Time management 22


Statistical considerations in project design 24


Designing and setting up experiments and surveys 26


Choosing sampling methods 26


Types of data 27


Sampling designs 29


Planning statistical analysis 35


Describing data 35


Asking questions about data 36


Predictive analysis 37


Multivariate analysis 38


Examining patterns and structure in communities 39


Summary 39


2 Monitoring Site Characteristics 43


Site selection 43


Site characterisation 44


Habitat mapping 44


Examination of landscape scale 54


Measuring microclimatic variables 55


Monitoring substrates 60


Monitoring water 64


Other physical attributes 67


Measuring biological attributes 70


Identification 76


3 Sampling Plants and Other Static Organisms 85


Sampling for static organisms 88


Seeds, fecundity, and population dynamics 91


Quadrat sampling 92


Density estimation using quadrats 95


Frequency estimation using quadrats 95


Cover estimation using quadrats 96


Biomass estimation within quadrats 97


Quadrat size 99


Nested quadrats 100


Placement of quadrats 101


Quadrat shape 102


Pin-frames 103


Transects 104


Plotless sampling 106


Distribution of static organisms 109


Forestry techniques 110


Tree diameter 110


Tree basal area 113


Height of trees 113


Timber volume 114


Growth 114


Canopy cover 115


Age and mortality 115


4 Sampling Mobile Organisms 119


General issues 120


Distribution of mobile organisms 123


Direct observation 124


Behaviour 124


Indirect methods 130


Capture techniques 130


Marking individuals 133


Radio-Tracking 136


Population dynamics 138


Invertebrates 140


Direct observation 141


Butterfly census method 141


Indirect methods 143


Using insect sounds 143


Capture techniques 144


Killing and preserving invertebrates 145


Marking individuals 145


Capturing aquatic invertebrates 150


Netting 152


Suction sampling 156


Benthic coring 156


Drags, dredges, and grabs 157


Wet extraction 158


Artificial substrate samplers 159


Baited traps and refuges 159


Capturing soil-living invertebrates 161


Sieving 161


Floatation and phase-separation 161


Tullgren funnels and similar methods of dry extraction 162


Chemical extraction 164


Electrical extraction 166


Capturing ground-active invertebrates 167


Pitfall traps 167


Suction samplers 175


Emergence traps 178


Capturing invertebrates from plants 180


Pootering 182


Sweep netting 184


Beating 185


Fogging 185


Capturing airborne invertebrates 187


Sticky traps 190


Using attractants 191


Refuges 194


Flight interception traps 195


Light traps 197


Rotary traps 205


Water (pan) traps 206


Fish 208


Direct observation 210


Indirect methods 211


Capture techniques 211


Nets and traps 212


Collecting fish larvae 215


Electrofishing 215


Marking individuals 215


Amphibians 218


Direct observation 221


Indirect methods 221


Counting egg masses 221


Using environmental DNA (eDNA) 222


Capture techniques 222


Sampling adults in water 223


Sampling adults on land 224


Tadpoles 226


Juveniles/metamorphs 226


Marking individuals 226


Reptiles 228


Direct observation 228


Indirect methods 229


Capture techniques 230


Hand-capture 232


Traps 233


Marking individuals 235


Birds 236


Direct observation 237


Timed species count 239


Common bird census/breeding bird survey 240


Point counts 241


Transect line counts 242


Distance sampling 242


Flush counts 244


Indirect methods 245


Counting nests at a distance 246


Bird song 247


Capture techniques 247


Mist netting 248


Propelled nets 250


Marking individuals 250


Mammals 253


Direct observation 254


Indirect methods 257


Capture techniques 264


Marking individuals 272


5 Analysing and Interpreting Information 275


Keys to tests 278


Exploring and describing data 285


Transforming and screening data 285


Graphical display of data 288


Measures of central tendency and sample variability 290


Spatial and temporal distributions 292


Population estimation techniques: densities and population sizes 292


Richness and diversity 297


Similarity, dissimilarity, and distance coefficients 297


Recording descriptive statistics 300


Testing hypotheses using basic statistical tests and simple general linear models 301


Differences between samples 304


Relationships between variables 307


Associations between frequency distributions 312


More advanced general linear models for predictive analysis 314


Multiple regression 314


Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance 316


Discriminant function analysis 318


Generalized linear models 319


Extensions of the generalized linear model 323


Extensions of generalized linear models and GAMs into mixed-effects models 324


Statistical methods to examine pattern and structure in communities: classification, indicator species, and ordination 325


Classification 325


Classification techniques when the number of groups is known 326


Significance testing for group membership: analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) 328


Classification techniques when the number of groups is unknown 329


Indicator species analysis 331


Ordination 332


Indirect gradient analysis 333


Comparing ordinations and matrix data 338


Direct gradient analysis 339


6 Presenting Information 343


Written reports 344


Title 345


Abstract 345


Acknowledgements 346


Contents 346


Introduction 347


Methods 347


Results 348


Illustrations (Tables, Figures, Plates, Equations, etc.) 349


Discussion 354


References 354


Citing papers 355


Appendices 358


Archiving data 359


Authors' contributions 359


Writing style 359


Tense 362


Passive tense 362


Numbers 362


Abbreviations 363


Punctuation 364


Choice of font 365


Common mistakes 366


Computer files 368


Specific guidance for writing for a journal 368


Specific guidance for preparing a poster 371


Specific guidance for preparing an oral presentation 376


Summary 379


Appendix 1 Glossary of Statistical Terms 381


References 387


Index 409

Polecamy również książki

Strony www Białystok Warszawa
801 777 223