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Construction Project Scheduling and Control

Construction Project Scheduling and Control

Autorzy
Wydawnictwo John Wiley & Sons Inc
Data wydania 03/09/2019
Liczba stron 592
Forma publikacji książka w twardej oprawie
Poziom zaawansowania Dla profesjonalistów, specjalistów i badaczy naukowych
ISBN 9781119499831
Kategorie Zarządzanie i style zarządzania, Przemysł budowlany, Konstrukcje budowlane i materiały
555.00 PLN (z VAT)
$149.85 / €124.32 / £112.29 /
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Opis książki

Ensure successful construction projects through effective project scheduling and control The success of a construction project is dependent on a schedule that is well-defined yet flexible to allow for inevitable delays or changes. Without an effective schedule, projects often run over budget and deadlines are missed which can jeopardize the success of the project. The updated Construction Project Scheduling and Control, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide that examines the analytical methods used to devise an efficient and successful schedule for construction projects of all sizes. This Fourth Edition describes the tools and methods that make projects run smoothly, with invaluable information from a noted career construction professional. Construction Project Scheduling and Control, Fourth Edition offers construction professionals a redefined Critical Path Method (CPM) and updated information on Building Information Modeling (BIM) and how it impacts project control. This Fourth Edition includes worked problems and scheduling software exercises that help students and practicing professionals apply critical thinking to issues in construction scheduling. This updated edition of Construction Project Scheduling and Control - Includes a revised chapter on the Critical Path Method (CPM) and an all-new chapter on project scheduling and control as viewed through the owner's perspective - Provides numerous worked problems and construction scheduling exercises - Includes an expanded glossary and list of acronyms - Offers updated instructor materials including PowerPoint lecture slides and an instructor's manual Written for undergraduate and graduate students in construction management, civil engineering, and architecture, as well as practicing construction management professionals, Construction Project Scheduling and Control, Fourth Edition is updated to reflect the latest practices in the field.

Construction Project Scheduling and Control

Spis treści

Preface xiii


Preface to the First Edition xvii


Chapter 1 Introduction 1


Planning and Scheduling 2


What is a Project? 2


Are Projects Unique? 4


Project Management Plan 7


Project Control 8


Why Schedule Projects? 8


The Scheduler 11


Certification 11


The Tripod of a Good Scheduling System 12


Scheduling and Project Management 12


Chapter 1 Exercises 13


Chapter 2 Bar (Gantt) Charts 15


Definition and Introduction 16


Advantages of Bar Charts 18


Disadvantages of Bar Charts 20


Chapter 2 Exercises 21


Chapter 3 Basic Networks 23


Definition and Introduction 24


Arrow Networks 24


Brief Explanation 24


The Logic 25


Notation 25


Dummy Activities 26


Redundancies 31


Node Networks 31


Lags and Leads 32


Recommendations for Proper Node Diagram Drawing 35


Comparison of Arrow and Node Networks 37


Networks versus Bar Charts 39


Effective Use of Bar Charts with CPM 40


Time-Scaled Logic Diagrams 40


Chapter 3 Exercises 41


Chapter 4 The Critical Path Method (CPM) 45


Introduction 46


Steps Required to Schedule a Project 47


Main Steps 47


Supplemental Steps 55


Resource Allocation and Leveling 57


Beginning-of-Day or End-of-Day Convention 59


The CPM Explained through Examples 59


Example 4.1: Logic Networks and the CPM 59


The CPM with Computer Software Programs 63


The Critical Path 64


Definitions 65


Examples 4.2 and 4.3: Node Diagrams and the CPM 66


Free Float 67


More Definitions 70


Float Check 71


Node Format 72


Lags and Leads in CPM Networks 73


Lags and Leads in Computer Software 76


Further Discussion of Float 76


Effect of Date Choices on Cash Flow 78


Project Schedule "Health Check" 78


Event Times in Arrow Networks 79


Effect of the Imposed Finish Date on the Schedule 81


Discussion of Example 4.7 82


Logic and Constraints 84


The "Hub" Concept 85


The Critical Path Method and Scheduling 85


Chapter 4 Exercises 86


Chapter 5 Precedence Networks 93


Definition and Introduction 94


The Four Types of Relationships 97


Important Comments about the Four Types of Relationships 98


The Percent Complete Approach 98


Fast-Track Projects 99


A Parallel Predecessor? 101


CPM Calculations for Precedence Diagrams 102


Interruptible Activities 102


The Simplistic Approach 105


Alternative Approach 107


The Detailed Approach 110


Contiguous (Uninterruptible) Activities 113


Remedy for Interruptible Activities 117


Multistage Activities 120


Types of Lags 121


Final Discussion 123


Chapter 5 Exercises 124


Chapter 6 Resource Allocation and Resource Leveling 129


Introduction 130


The Three Categories of Resources 130


Labor 130


Equipment and Materials 130


What is Resource Allocation? 131


Resource Leveling 131


What is Resource Leveling? 131


Why Level Resources? 131


Do All Resources Have to Be Leveled? 132


Multiproject Resource Leveling 132


Assigning Budgets in Computer Scheduling Programs 134


Leveling Resources in a Project 136


Resource Leveling from the General Contractor's Perspective 153


Materials Management 155


Chapter 6 Exercises 159


Chapter 7 Schedule Updating and Project Control 163


Introduction 164


The Need for Schedule Updating 164


Project Control Defined 164


Schedule Updating 165


What is a Baseline Schedule? 165


What is an Updated Schedule? 167


What is the Data Date? 168


What Kind of Information is Needed for Updating Schedules? 168


Frequency of Updating 171


Retained Logic or Progress Override 172


Auto-Updating 172


Updating Schedules and Pay Requests 173


"Degressing" an In-Progress Schedule to Create a Baseline Schedule 175


Effect of Adding or Deleting Activities on Logic 176


Steps for Updating a Schedule 180


Change in the Critical Path 191


Float after the Update 191


Contractor-Created Float 192


Data and Information 193


Project Control 194


Measuring Work Progress 194


Earned Value Analysis 208


Chapter 7 Exercises 217


Chapter 8 Schedule Compression and Time-Cost Trade-Off 223


Introduction 224


How Important is It to Finish on Schedule? 225


Setting Priorities 225


Accelerating a Project 226


What is "Accelerating" a Project? 226


Why Accelerate a Project? 226


How Can Project Duration Be Shortened? 227


Acceleration and Fast-Tracking 235


Construction and Modularization 235


How Does Accelerating a Project Work? 236


Direct and Indirect Costs 238


Cost Concepts as They Relate to Schedule Compression 240


Choosing the Best Method for Project Acceleration 240


Effect of Acceleration on Direct Costs 241


Effect of Acceleration on Indirect Costs 242


Effect of Acceleration on Total Cost 243


Issues to Consider When Accelerating a Project 245


Recovery Schedules 247


Accelerating Projects Using Computers 252


Potential Issues with Uncoordinated Project Acceleration 253


Optimum Project Scheduling 254


Project Scheduling and Prevailing Economic Conditions 255


Project Scheduling in Extreme Weather Regions 256


Optimum Scheduling 256


Productivity and Cost Multipliers 258


Chapter 8 Exercises 260


Chapter 9 Reports and Presentations 265


Introduction 266


The Difference between Reports and Presentations 270


Skills Necessary for Giving Good Presentations 272


The Power of Presentations 273


Reviewing Reports before and after Printing 275


General Tips on Printing Reports 276


Summary Reports 277


Paper or Electronic Reports? 277


E-Reports 280


Communications in the International Environment 280


Chapter 9 Exercises 282


Chapter 10 Scheduling as Part of the Project Management Effort 285


Introduction 286


Project Objectives 287


Defining and Measuring Project Success 288


Scheduling and Estimating 290


Evolution of a Cost Estimate and a Schedule for a Project 291


Estimate-Generated Schedules 294


Cost-Loaded Schedules 296


Estimating and Accounting 296


Scheduling and Accounting 298


Scheduling and Change Orders 298


Paperless Project Management 299


Procurement Management 300


Management of Submittals 301


The Master Schedule and Subschedules 303


Multiproject Management 304


Time Contingency and Management Options 305


Chapter 10 Exercises 308


Chapter 11 Other Scheduling Methods 311


Introduction 312


Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 312


Background 312


Concept of PERT 312


How PERT Works 313


PERT Calculations 313


Graphic Explanation 316


"Most Likely" versus "Expected" Durations 323


Is the Longest Path Still the Most Critical? 323


Using PERT to Calculate the Date of an Event with a Certain Level of Confidence 326


Determining the Probability of a Certain Project Finish Date (Multiple Paths Considered) 327


PERT and the Construction Industry 328


PERT and Computer Project-Scheduling Software 328


Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) 329


Linear Scheduling Method (LSM) 330


Steps to Build a Schedule Using the LSM 331


How the LSM Works 331


LSM and Project Schedule Acceleration 337


LSM Computer Software Programs 337


Graphical Path Method (GPM) 338


Relationship Diagramming Method (RDM) 342


The Critical Path Segments (CPS) Scheduling Technique 346


Chapter 11 Exercises 348


Chapter 12 Dynamic Minimum Lag Relationship 353


Introduction 354


Why DML? 354


Similarity between the DML Concept and the Linear Scheduling Method (LSM) 355


How Does DML Work? 356


DML Relationship in CPM Calculations 358


Can the Lag in the DML Relationship Be a Percentage? 359


Conclusion 365


Chapter 12 Exercises 366


Chapter 13 The Critical Path Definition: Revisited 367


Introduction 367


What is the "Longest Path"? 368


The Critical Path through Examples 369


The Simple Case 369


Imposed Finish Date 370


Activities with Lags 370


Activities with Constraints 371


Activities with Different Calendars 373


Precedence Diagrams 373


Further Discussion of Example 7 375


Resource Constraints 377


Resource Allocation and Resource Leveling 378


Risk and Probabilistic Durations 379


Risk, Consequences, or Both? 379


The AACE Recommended Practices No. 49R-06 and 92R-17 381


Proposed Definition of the Critical Path 381


Changes in the Critical Path 382


Chapter 14 Construction Delays and Other Claims 383


Introduction 384


Delay Claims 384


Reasons for Claims 386


Force Majeure 388


Types of Delays 389


Scheduling Mistakes Related to Delay Claims 390


Project Documentation 393


Delay Claims Resolution 396


The Importance of CPM Schedules in Delay Claims 399


Methods of Schedule Analysis 399


As-built Schedule 400


Updated Impact Schedule 400


As-Planned Schedule 400


Comparison Schedule 400


Accelerated Schedule 400


Who Owns the Float 401


Chapter 14 Exercises 406


Chapter 15 Schedule Risk Management 409


Introduction 410


Types of Risk in Construction Projects 411


Schedule Risk Types 412


General Duration Uncertainty 414


Specific Risk Events 416


Network Logic Risks 417


Definition of Risk Terms 418


Importance of Good Planning for Risk Management 420


Importance of Good CPM Scheduling Practices for Risk Assessment 420


Risk Shifting in Contracts 422


Schedule Risk Management Steps 424


1. Risk Management Planning 425


2. Identifying Schedule Risks 427


3. Performing Qualitative Analysis 427


4. Performing Risk Prioritization for the Qualitative Analysis (Quantitative Analysis) 429


5. Responding to and Addressing Risks 429


6. Monitoring and Updating the Risk Management Plan 430


Expected Value 430


Application in Scheduling 432


Examples of Risk Adjustment 433


Conclusion 434


Chapter 15 Exercises 435


Chapter 16 BIM-Based 4D Modeling and Scheduling 437


Overview of Building Information Modeling (BIM) 437


Definition and Benefits of BIM 437


Differences between BIM and CAD 438


Definition and Benefits of 3D Modeling 440


Definition and Benefits of 4D Modeling 441


Steps for Creating 4D Models 442


Definition and Benefits of 5D Modeling 443


Case Study 445


Project Information 445


Creating and Linking the 3D Model 445


Information about the TimeLiner Tab 446


Creating and Importing Project Schedules 447


Defining Task Types 451


Creating Selection Sets 453


Creating the 4D Model and Project Animation 453


Exporting Snapshots and Animation 457


Using Integrated Systems 461


Lean Construction 462


Chapter 16 Exercises 464


Chapter 17 Project Scheduling for Owners 467


Introduction 467


Project Initiation Process 468


The Owner's Organization 471


Project Planning 471


Using Available Tools 473


Best Value 473


The Evolution of the Schedule 474


Choosing the Contract Type and Delivery Method 475


Contract Templates 476


Owner-Contractor Trust Relationship 477


Project Financing 477


Requiring and Approving a Schedule 478


Owning and Managing Float 479


Managing the Contractor 480


Managing Scope/Changes 480


Schedule Updating and Percent Complete 482


Delay Claims: Avoidance and Resolution 482


Chapter 17 Exercises 483


Appendix A Computer Project 485


General Guidelines 485


Assignment 1 488


Cost Loading 489


Assignment 2 491


Updating the Project 491


Assignment 3 492


Change Order 492


Assignment 4 493


Resource Leveling 493


Assignment 5 493


Schedule Compression 1 494


Assignment 6 494


Schedule Compression 2 496


Assignment 7 496


Delay Claim 1: Unforeseen Conditions 496


Assignment 8 497


Delay Claim 2: Change in the Owner's Requirements 497


Assignment 9 497


Appendix B Sample Reports 499


Tabular Reports 499


Graphic Reports 517


Abbreviations 529


Glossary 535


Bibliography 559


Index 567

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