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Microbiology For Dummies

Microbiology For Dummies

Autorzy
Wydawnictwo John Wiley & Sons Inc
Data wydania 08/03/2019
Liczba stron 384
Forma publikacji książka w miękkiej oprawie
Poziom zaawansowania Dla profesjonalistów, specjalistów i badaczy naukowych
ISBN 9781119544425
Kategorie Biologia, Mikrobiologia (nie medyczna)
131.00 PLN (z VAT)
$35.06 / €29.26 / £26.25 /
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Dostawa 14 dni
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Opis książki

Microbiology For Dummies (9781119544425) was previously published as Microbiology For Dummies (9781118871188). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product. Microbiology is the study of life itself, down to the smallest particle Microbiology is a fascinating field that explores life down to the tiniest level. Did you know that your body contains more bacteria cells than human cells? It's true. Microbes are essential to our everyday lives, from the food we eat to the very internal systems that keep us alive. These microbes include bacteria, algae, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. Without microbes, life on Earth would not survive. It's amazing to think that all life is so dependent on these microscopic creatures, but their impact on our future is even more astonishing. Microbes are the tools that allow us to engineer hardier crops, create better medicines, and fuel our technology in sustainable ways. Microbes may just help us save the world. Microbiology For Dummies is your guide to understanding the fundamentals of this enormously-encompassing field. Whether your career plans include microbiology or another science or health specialty, you need to understand life at the cellular level before you can understand anything on the macro scale. Explore the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Understand the basics of cell function and metabolism Discover the differences between pathogenic and symbiotic relationships Study the mechanisms that keep different organisms active and alive You need to know how cells work, how they get nutrients, and how they die. You need to know the effects different microbes have on different systems, and how certain microbes are integral to ecosystem health. Microbes are literally the foundation of all life, and they are everywhere. Microbiology For Dummies will help you understand them, appreciate them, and use them.

Microbiology For Dummies

Spis treści

Introduction 1


About This Book 1


Foolish Assumptions 2


Icons Used in This Book 2


Beyond the Book 3


Where to Go from Here 3


Part 1: Getting Started With Microbiology 5


Chapter 1: Microbiology and You 7


Why Microbiology? 7


Introducing the Microorganisms 8


Deconstructing Microbiology 10


Chapter 2: Microbiology: The Young Science 11


Before Microbiology: Misconceptions and Superstitions 12


Discovering Microorganisms 12


Debunking the myth of spontaneous generation 13


Improving medicine, from surgery to antibiotics and more 14


Looking at microbiology outside the human body 16


The Future of Microbiology 16


Exciting frontiers 17


Remaining challenges 18


Chapter 3: Microbes: They're Everywhere and They Can Do Everything 21


Habitat Diversity 23


Metabolic Diversity 24


Getting energy 25


Capturing carbon 25


Making enzymes 26


Secondary metabolism 26


The Intersection of Microbes and Everyone Else 27


Part 2: Balancing the Dynamics Of Microbial Life 29


Chapter 4: Understanding Cell Structure and Function 31


Seeing the Shapes of Cells 31


Life on a Minute Scale: Considering the Size of Prokaryotes 33


The Cell: An Overview 34


Scaling the Outer Membrane and Cell Walls 35


Examining the outer membrane 35


Exploring the cell wall 37


Other Important Cell Structures 41


Divining Cell Division 43


Tackling Transport Systems 44


Coasting with the current: Passive transport 45


Upstream paddle: Active transport 46


Keeping things clean with efflux pumps 46


Getting Around with Locomotion 47


Chapter 5: Making Sense of Metabolism 49


Converting with Enzymes 49


In Charge of Energy: Oxidation and Reduction 51


Donating and accepting electrons 52


Bargaining with energy-rich compounds 54


Storing energy for later 55


Breaking Down Catabolism 56


Digesting glycolysis 56


Stepping along with respiration and electron carriers 57


Moving with the proton motive force 59


Turning the citric acid cycle 60


Stacking Up with Anabolism 61


Creating amino acids and nucleic acids 62


Making sugars and polysaccharides 63


Putting together fatty acids and lipids 65


Chapter 6: Getting the Gist of Microbial Genetics 67


Organizing Genetic Material 68


DNA: The recipe for life 68


Perfect plasmids 70


Doubling down with DNA replication 71


Assembling the Cellular Machinery 75


Making messenger RNA 75


Remembering other types of RNA 77


Synthesizing protein 78


Making the Right Amount: Regulation 80


Turning the tap on and off: DNA regulation 81


Regulating protein function 83


Changing the Genetic Code 83


Slight adjustments 83


Major rearrangements 85


Chapter 7: Measuring Microbial Growth 89


Getting Growth Requirements Right 89


Physical requirements 90


Chemical requirements 91


Culturing microbes in the lab 92


Observing Microbes 94


Counting small things 95


Seeing morphology 97


Calculating Cell Division and Population Growth 98


Dividing cells 99


Following growth phases 100


Inhibiting Microbial Growth 101


Physical methods 101


Disinfectants 102


Part 3: Sorting Out Microbial Diversity 103


Chapter 8: Appreciating Microbial Ancestry 105


Where Did Microbes Come From? 105


Tracing the origins of life 106


Diversifying early prokaryotes 107


The impact of prokaryotes on the early earth 107


Hitching a ride: Endosymbiosis 108


Understanding Evolution 111


Studying Evolution 113


Choosing marker genes 113


Seeing the direction of gene transfer in prokaryotes 114


Classifying and Naming Microbes 115


Climbing the Tree of Life 117


Chapter 9: Harnessing Energy, Fixing Carbon 119


Forging Ahead with Autotrophic Processes 120


Fixing carbon 120


Using the Energy in Light 124


Harvesting light: Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls 125


Helping photosynthesis out: Carotenoids and phycobilins 127


Generating oxygen (or not): Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis 128


Getting Energy from the Elements: Chemolithotrophy 133


Harnessing hydrogen 134


Securing electrons from sulfur 134


Pumping iron 135


Oxidizing nitrate and ammonia 136


Chapter 10: Comparing Respiration and Fermentation 139


Lifestyles of the Rich and Facultative 139


Seeing the Big Picture 141


Digging into Respiration 144


Spinning the citric acid cycle 144


Stepping down the electron transport chain 146


Respiring anaerobically 147


Figuring Out Fermentation 150


Chapter 11: Uncovering a Variety of Habitats 155


Defining a Habitat 156


Understanding Nutrient Cycles 157


Carbon cycling 157


Nitrogen cycling 160


Sulfur cycling 162


Phosphorous cycles in the ocean 162


Microbes Socializing in Communities 163


Using quorum sensing to communicate 163


Living in biofilms 163


Exploring microbial mats 165


Discovering Microbes in Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitats 165


Thriving in water 166


Swarming soils 167


Getting Along with Plants and Animals 168


Living with plants 169


Living with animals 171


Living with insects 172


Living with ocean creatures 172


Tolerating Extreme Locations 173


Detecting Microbes in Unexpected Places 174


Part 4: Meeting the Microbes 175


Chapter 12: Meet the Prokaryotes 177


Getting to Know the Bacteria 178


The Gram-negative bacteria: Proteobacteria 178


More Gram-negative bacteria 182


The Gram-positive bacteria 186


Acquainting Yourself with the Archaea 188


Some like it scalding: Extreme thermophiles 190


Going beyond acidic: Extreme acidophiles 191


Super salty: Extreme halophiles 192


Not terribly extreme Archaea 193


Chapter 13: Say Hello to the Eukaryotes 195


Fun with Fungi 196


Figuring out fungal physiology 196


Itemizing fungal diversity 199


Interacting with plant roots 201


Ask us about the Ascomycetes 202


Mushrooms: Basidiomycetes 203


Perusing the Protists 204


Making us sick: Apicoplexans 205


Making plants sick: Oomycetes 207


Chasing amoeba and ciliates 207


Encountering the algae 210


Chapter 14: Examining the Vastness of Viruses 215


Hijacking Cells 215


Frugal viral structure 216


Simplifying viral function 217


Making Heads or Tails of Bacteriophage 219


Lytic phage 219


Temperate phage 220


Transposable phage 222


Discussing Viruses of Eukaryotes 224


Infecting animal cells 224


Following plant viruses 227


How Host Cells Fight Back 229


Restriction enzymes 229


CRISPR 230


Interfering with RNA viruses: RNAi 232


Part 5: Seeing the Impact Of Microbes 233


Chapter 15: Understanding Microbes in Human Health and Disease 235


Clarifying the Host Immune Response 236


Putting up barriers to infection 236


Raising a red flag with inflammation 237


Holding down the fort with innate immunity 237


Sending out the troops for adaptive immunity 238


Antibodies in action 240


Relying on Antimicrobials for Treating Disease 243


Fundamental features of antibiotics 244


Targets of destruction 245


Unraveling microbial drug resistance 247


Discovering new antibiotics 249


Searching Out Superbugs 250


Staying ahead of vancomycin-resistant enterococci 251


Battling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 251


Outcompeting Clostridium difficile 253


Pressure from extended-spectrum beta-lactamases 253


Knowing the Benefits of Prebiotics and Probiotics 254


Attacking Viruses with Antiviral Drugs 255


Chapter 16: Putting Microbes to Work: Biotechnology 257


Using Recombinant DNA Technology 258


Making the insert 258


Employing plasmids 261


Cutting with restriction enzymes 262


Getting microbes to take up DNA 264


Using promoters to drive expression 267


Making use of expression vectors 267


Properly folding proteins 268


Being mindful of metabolic load 269


Making long, multi-gene constructs 269


Providing Therapies 272


Improving antibiotics 272


Developing vaccines 272


Using Microbes Industrially 273


Protecting plants with microbial insecticides 274


Making biofuels 275


Bioleaching metals 276


Cleaning up with microbes 276


Chapter 17: Fighting Microbial Diseases 279


Protecting Public Health: Epidemiology 279


Tracking diseases 280


Investigating outbreaks 280


Identifying a Microbial Pathogen 283


Characterizing morphology 283


Using biochemical tests 284


Typing strains with phage 286


Using serology 287


Testing antibiotic susceptibility 288


Understanding Vaccines 289


Understanding how vaccines work 290


Ranking the types of vaccines 291


Part 6: New Frontiers in Microbiology 293


Chapter 18: Teasing Apart Communities 295


Studying Microbial Communities 295


Borrowing from ecology 296


Seeing what sets microbial communities apart from plants and animals 296


Observing Communities: Microbial Ecology Methods 297


Selecting something special with enrichment 297


Seeing cells through lenses 298


Measuring microbial activity 299


Identifying species using marker genes 300


Getting the Hang of Microbial Genetics and Systematics 301


Sequencing whole genomes 301


Using metagenomics to study microbial communities 302


Reading microbial transcriptomics 303


Figuring out proteomics and metabolomics 304


Looking for Microbial Dark Matter 306


Chapter 19: Synthesizing Life 307


Regulating Genes: The lac Operon 308


Using a good natural system 308


Improving a good system 310


Designing Genetic Networks 312


Switching from one state to another 313


Oscillating between states 314


Keeping signals short 315


The Synthetic Biologist's Toolbox 315


Making it modular 315


Participating in the iGEM competition 316


Part 7: The Part of Tens 319


Chapter 20: Ten (or So) Diseases Caused by Microbes 321


Ebola 322


Anthrax 322


Influenza 323


Tuberculosis 324


HIV 324


Cholera 325


Smallpox 325


Primary Amoebic Menigoencephalitis 326


The Unknown 327


Chapter 21: Ten Great Uses for Microbes 329


Making Delicious Foods 329


Growing Legumes 330


Brewing Beer, Liquor, and Wine 330


Killing Insect Pests 331


Treating Sewage 331


Contributing to Medicine 332


Setting Up Your Aquarium 332


Making and Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastics 333


Turning Over Compostable Waste 333


Maintaining a Balance 334


Chapter 22: Ten Great Uses for Microbiology 335


Medical Care: Keeping People Healthy 335


Dental Care: Keeping Those Pearly Whites Shining Bright 336


Veterinary Care: Helping Fido and Fluffy to Feel Their Best 337


Monitoring the Environment 338


Making Plants Happy 339


Keeping Fish Swimming Strong 339


Producing Food, Wine, and Beer 340


Science Hacking 341


Looking for Microbes in Clean Rooms 341


Producing Pharmaceuticals 342


Index 343

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