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Beaches and Coasts

Beaches and Coasts

Authors
Publisher John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Year 13/02/2020
Pages 536
Version hardback
Readership level College/higher education
ISBN 9781119334484
Categories Geological surface processes (geomorphology), Oceanography (seas), Deltas, estuaries, coastal regions, The environment
$109.35 (with VAT)
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Book description

A new edition of a unique textbook that provides an exhaustive treatment of the world's different coasts--with focus on climate change sea-level rise Coastlines of the world are as diverse and complex as any geological setting on Earth, and understanding them is extremely important. Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an exciting and unique textbook that covers the world's different coasts and details the highly varied processes that have shaped them. This new edition emphasizes the future susceptibility of coast to climate driven stresses and decreasing sediment supplies, and considers various aspects of coastal management that are and/or that need to be undertaken. Seeking to better educate students and readers about the sustainability of coast and coastal environments, this exciting and unique book offers enlightening coverage of: the Earth's mobile crust; sediments of coastal environments; impacts of sea level change; weather systems and the effects of storms; the influence of wave energy and different tidal regimes; river deltas; coastal bays; estuaries and lagoons; tidal flats; coastal wetlands; beach and nearshore areas; coastal barriers; tidal inlets; glaciated coasts; and rocky coasts. Takes an extensive look at the world's varied coasts and covers the many processes that have shaped them over time Shows how coastal processes and landform evolution are expected to be impacted by climate change Includes new coverage of Hurricane Katrina and the 2005 flooding of New Orleans, Hurricane Sandy and its affect on New York and the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Tohoku Lavishly illustrated with over 400 color photographs and figures Draws on a wealth of author experience that broadens the content of chapters and provides for numerous and varied examples Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students of coastal geology, coastal processes and coastal environments.

Beaches and Coasts

Table of contents

1 Coastline Variability and Functions in the Global Environment 1


1.1 Coastal Settings 1


1.2 Population and the Coast 3


1.2.1 History of Coastal Occupation 3


1.3 General Coastal Conditions 3


1.4 Coastal Environments 4


1.5 Historical Trends in Coastal Research 8


Suggested Reading 13


2 The Earth's Mobile Crust 15


2.1 Introduction 15


2.2 Earth's Interior 18


2.3 Plate Boundaries 21


2.3.1 Divergent Boundaries 21


2.3.2 Convergent Boundaries 24


2.3.3 Transform Boundaries 28


2.3.4 Plate Movement 29


2.4 Continental Margins 31


2.4.1 Tectonic Evolution of Continental Margins 34


2.5 Tectonic Coastline Classification 36


2.5.1 Collision Coasts 37


2.5.2 Trailing Edge Coasts 42


2.5.3 Marginal Sea Coasts 46


2.6 Tectonic Effects on Coastal Sediment Supply 47


2.6.1 Continental Drainage 48


2.6.2 Location of Rivers 49


2.6.3 Continental Shelf Width 51


2.7 Summary 52


Reference 53


Suggested Reading 53


3 Sediments and Rocks: Materials of Coastal Environments 55


3.1 Rock Types 55


3.2 Sediment Texture 56


3.2.1 Grain Size 56


3.2.2 Grain Shape 59


3.3 Mineralogy 60


3.4 General Origin and Distribution of Sediments 60


3.4.1 Composition 61


3.4.2 Texture 64


3.5 Summary 65


Reference 66


Suggested Reading 67


4 Sea?Level Change and Coastal Environments 69


4.1 Changing the Size and Shape of the Container 71


4.1.1 Tectonic Causes 71


4.2 Climate and Sea?Level Change 74


4.2.1 Seasonal Changes 74


4.2.2 Non?seasonal Cyclic Changes 75


4.2.3 Long?term Climatic Effects 76


4.3 Sea?level Rise due to Sediment Compaction and Fluid Withdrawal 77


4.4 Isostasy 81


4.5 Changes in the Volume of the World Ocean 81


4.5.1 Advance and Retreat of Ice Sheets 81


4.6 Post?Glacial Rise in Sea Level 85


4.7 Current and Future Sea?Level Changes 86


4.7.1 Impact of Increasing Rise in Sea Level on Modern Coastal Environments 90


4.8 Summary 93


References 94


Suggested Reading 94


5 Weather Systems, Extratropical Storms, and Hurricanes 95


5.1 Introduction 95


5.2 Basic Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Patterns 97


5.2.1 Wind 97


5.2.2 Atmospheric Circulation 97


5.2.3 Prevailing Winds 101


5.2.4 Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Systems 101


5.2.5 Land?breezes and Sea?breezes 102


5.3 Mid?latitude Storms 102


5.3.1 Frontal Weather 103


5.3.2 Cyclogenesis 105


5.3.3 Extratropical Storms 106


5.4 Hurricanes and Tropical Storms 109


5.4.1 Low Latitude Storms 109


5.4.2 Origin and Movement of Hurricanes 110


5.4.3 Anatomy of a Hurricane 113


5.4.4 Hurricanes at the Coast 115


5.5 Summary 125


Suggested Reading 132


6 Waves and the Coast 133


6.1 Water Motion and Wave Propagation 136


6.2 Wind Wave Types 140


6.3 Distribution and Transfer of Wave Energy 142


6.4 Other Types of Waves 146


6.5 Wave?Generated Currents 148


6.6 Summary 150


Suggested Reading 152


7 Tides of the Ocean 153


7.1 Introduction 153


7.2 Tide?Generating Forces 153


7.2.1 Gravitational Force 153


7.2.2 Centrifugal Force 154


7.2.3 Tide?Producing Force 156


7.3 Equilibrium Tide 157


7.3.1 Tidal Cycle 157


7.3.2 Orbiting Moon 158


7.3.3 Inclination of Moon's Orbit 159


7.4 Interaction of Sun and Moon 159


7.5 Effects of Orbital Geometry 161


7.6 Effects of Partitioning Oceans 162


7.7 Tidal Signatures 163


7.8 Tides in Shallow Water 167


7.9 Summary 175


References 176


Suggested Reading 176


8 River Deltas: The Source of Most of our Coastal Sediments 177


8.1 How Deltas Develop 178


8.2 Deltas and Sea Level 182


8.3 Delta Environments 184


8.4 Delta Plain 184


8.4.1 Delta Front 186


8.5 Delta Processes 189


8.6 River Processes 189


8.7 Delta Classification 190


8.7.1 River?Dominated Deltas 192


8.7.2 Tide?Dominated Deltas 193


8.7.3 Wave?Dominated Deltas 193


8.8 Intermediate Deltas 195


8.9 Human Influence 195


8.10 Summary 200


References 200


Suggested Reading 201


9 Estuaries 203


9.1 Estuarine Hydrology 206


9.1.1 Classification of Estuaries 207


9.1.2 Estuarine Processes 208


9.1.3 Time-Velocity Relationships 209


9.1.4 Model Estuary 214


9.1.5 Estuary Types 219


9.2 Human Impact on Estuaries 222


9.3 Summary 227


References 227


Suggested Reading 228


10 Coastal Lagoons 229


10.1 Definition 229


10.2 Morphology and Setting 229


10.3 General Characteristics 231


10.4 Lagoonal Processes 233


10.5 Lagoonal Sediments 235


10.6 Example Lagoons 239


10.7 Summary 244


Suggested Reading 245


11 Tidal Flats 247


11.1 Morphology of Tidal Flats 247


11.2 Sediments 249


11.3 Organisms 249


11.3.1 Vagrant Organisms 250


11.3.2 Sessile Organisms 250


11.3.3 Limiting Factors 250


11.3.4 Bioturbation 254


11.4 Sedimentary Structures 254


11.5 Tidal Flat Processes 260


11.5.1 Tides 260


11.5.2 Waves 263


11.6 Tidal Channels 265


11.7 Some Examples 267


11.7.1 German Wadden Sea and Jade Bay 267


11.7.2 The Wash 272


11.7.3 Bay of St.?Malo 273


11.7.4 Bay of Fundy 273


11.8 Human Impact on Tidal Flats 274


11.9 Summary 276


References 278


Suggested Reading 278


12 Coastal Wetlands 281


12.1 Characteristics of a Coastal Marsh 281


12.1.1 Marsh Plants 281


12.1.2 Global Distribution 284


12.2 Marsh Characteristics 285


12.2.1 Marsh Classification 287


12.3 Marsh Sedimentation 289


12.3.1 Sediments 290


12.3.2 Sea Level and Marsh Development 292


12.4 Human Impact on the Marsh Environment 293


12.5 Marsh Summary 293


12.6 Mangrove Coasts 297


12.7 Mangrove Distribution 297


12.7.1 Global Distribution 297


12.7.2 Local 297


12.7.3 Zonation 298


12.8 Mangroves and Coastal Processes 300


12.9 Human Impact on Mangroves 303


12.10 Summary 303


References 305


Suggested Reading 305


13 Beach and Nearshore Environment 307


13.1 Nearshore Environment 307


13.2 Foreshore 312


13.3 Backbeach 322


13.4 Human Impact on Beaches 328


13.5 Summary 331


Suggested Reading 337


14 Coastal Dunes 339


14.1 Types of Coastal Dunes and Their Distribution 339


14.2 Dune Formation 345


14.3 Dune Dynamics 349


14.3.1 Dune Structures 351


14.4 Human Influence on Dunes 352


14.5 Summary 353


Suggested Reading 357


15 Barrier Systems 359


15.1 Introduction 359


15.2 Physical Description 359


15.3 Distribution and Coastal Setting 362


15.4 Summary 366


15.5 Barrier Types 366


15.5.1 Barrier Spits 367


15.5.2 Welded Barriers 374


15.5.3 Barrier Islands 376


15.6 Prograding, Retrograding, and Aggrading Barriers 380


15.6.1 Prograding Barriers 381


15.6.2 Retrograding Barriers 384


15.6.3 Aggrading Barriers 388


15.7 Barrier Stratigraphy 390


15.8 Barrier Coast Morphology 393


15.8.1 Hayes Models 394


15.8.2 Georgia Bight 396


15.9 Barrier Coasts: Morphology and Evolution 399


15.9.1 Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia 399


15.9.2 Mississippi River Delta Barriers 400


15.10 Summary 403


References 403


Suggested Reading 404


16 Tidal Inlets 405


16.1 Introduction 405


16.2 What is a Tidal Inlet 405


16.3 Inlet Morphology 409


16.3.1 Tidal Deltas 409


16.3.2 Ebb?Tidal Delta Morphology 413


16.4 Tidal Inlet Formation 415


16.4.1 Breaching of a Barrier 415


16.4.2 Spit Building across a Bay 415


16.4.3 Drowned River Valleys 417


16.4.4 Ephemeral Inlets 419


16.5 Tidal Inlet Migration 419


16.6 Tidal Inlet Relationships 423


16.6.1 Inlet Throat Area-Tidal Prism Relationship 423


16.6.2 Ebb?Tidal Delta Volume-Tidal Prism Relationship 425


16.7 Sand Transport Patterns 426


16.7.1 General Sand?Dispersal Trends 427


16.7.2 Inlet Sediment Bypassing 427


16.8 Tidal Inlet Effects on Adjacent Shorelines 438


16.8.1 Number and Size of Tidal Inlets 439


16.8.2 Tidal Inlets as Sediment Traps 440


16.8.3 Changes in Ebb?Tidal Delta Volume 441


16.8.4 Wave Sheltering 442


16.8.5 Effects of Inlet Sediment Bypassing 445


16.8.6 Human Influences 446


16.9 Summary 448


References 451


Suggested Reading 452


17 Glaciated Coasts 453


17.1 Introduction 453


17.2 The World's Glaciers 454


17.2.1 Glacier Formation 456


17.2.2 Glacier Movement 457


17.2.3 Distribution and Types of Glaciers 458


17.3 Pleistocene Glaciation 462


17.3.1 Introduction 462


17.3.2 Defining the Pleistocene 463


17.3.3 Causes of the Ice Ages 464


17.3.4 The Late Pleistocene 466


17.4 Glacial Effects on Coastlines 467


17.4.1 General Erosional Processes 467


17.4.2 Fjords 468


17.4.3 Rocky Coasts 469


17.4.4 General Depositional Processes 471


17.4.5 Depositional Landforms 473


17.5 Examples of Glaciated Coastlines 477


17.5.1 Cape Cod 477


17.5.2 Drumlin Coasts 480


17.5.3 Sand and Gravel Beaches 482


17.5.4 Uplifted Coasts 482


17.5.5 Drowned River Valleys 485


17.6 Summary 485


References 487


Suggested Readings 488


18 Rocky Coasts 489


18.1 Introduction 489


18.2 Types and Distribution 490


18.2.1 Tectonic Settings 490


18.2.2 Glaciated Regions 490


18.2.3 Other Bedrock Coasts 491


18.3 Erosional Processes 493


18.3.1 Physical Processes 493


18.3.2 Biological Processes 497


18.3.3 Chemical Processes 498


18.4 Factors Affecting Rates of Erosion 498


18.5 Morphology 500


18.5.1 Sea Cliffs 501


18.5.2 Horizontal Erosional Landforms 504


18.5.3 Sea Stacks, Arches, and Erosional Features 506


18.6 Summary 511


Suggested Reading 512


Index 513

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