Insight into the role of hormones, particularly estrogen and testosterone, in health and disease etiology - including interactions with other hormone pathways - has dramatically changed. Estrogen and androgen receptors, with their polymorphisms, are key molecules in all tissues and are involved in a number of homeostatic mechanisms but also pathological processes including carcinogenesis and the development of metabolic and neurological disorders such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with the endocrine (hormone) systems at certain dosages and play a key role in the pathology of disease. Most known EDCs are manmade and are therefore an increasing concern given the number commonly found in household products and the environment. This book will cover the mechanisms of EDC pathology across the spectrum of disease, as well as risk assessment and government and legal regulation to provide a holistic view of the current issues and cutting-edge research in the topic. With contributions from global leaders in the field, this book will be an ideal reference for toxicologists, endocrinologists and researchers interested in developmental biology, regulatory toxicology and the interface between environment and human health.
Challenges in Endocrine Disruptor Toxicology and Risk Assessment
Endocrine Disruptor effects on estrogen, androgen and thyroxine pathways: recent advances on screening and assessment; Methylation disturbances by Endocrine Disruptors; Endocrine Disruptor dose-response: threshold and bimodal action issues; Ontology approaches and modelling applied to Endocrine Disruptors; Sex-specific actions of Endocrine Disruptors; Pathways of Endocrine Disruptor-induced infertility; Health risks of transplacental exposure to Endocrine Disruptors; Endocrine Disruptors and Cancer: from genotoxicity mechanisms to ethnicity-related susceptibility; Bone as Endocrine Disruptor target; Pathways of Endocrine Disruptor-induced neuro-developmental disturbances; Endocrine Disruptors and the Retinoid Pathways; The environmental burden of EDC in a "One Health" perspective; Pollution of water and food by hormonally active pesticides and drugs (human and veterinary): focus on emerging countries; Natural substances in supplements and nutraceuticals as Endocrine Disruptors; Endocrine Disruptors in building materials (bisphenols, phthalates); Endocrine Disruptors in clothing and cosmetics; Risk analysis of Endocrine Disruptors in data-poor scenarios; Biomarkers of effect for Endocrine Disruptors to be used in epidemiological studies; Occupational exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and reproductive health; Interdisciplinary collaboration between environmental health and clinical experts on Endocrine Disruptor-associated cancers and infertility; Regulation and risk management of Endocrine Disruptors: current status and future perspectives